Les mots “arabes” dans la langue française, vestiges de routes commerciales du passé et véhicules d’intentions conquérantes du présent

Depuis plusieurs mois, un certain nombre de médias martèlent parfois plusieurs fois par jour que le français comporterait de nombreux mots d’origines arabes. Malheureusement, il n’est pas rare de voir ce fait avancé par les médias être utilisé pour justifier une politique migratoire particulièrement violente et cruelle à l’égard des français. Ce nombre de mots est estimé selon ces médias au nombre de 500.

Pourtant, c’est une chose étrange d’en venir à considérer que ces 500 mots (1,6%) auraient plus de légitimité à représenter la France que les 31 500 mots restants (98,4%) de la langue française. Face à l’utilisation très insistante par certaines sphères politiques de cette information linguistique, il est donc nécessaire de se pencher sur la question et de vérifier si cela légitime réellement l’argumentaire immigrationniste.

Plus de mots arabes dans la langue française que de mots gaulois?

Un des arguments les plus mis en avant est qu’il y aurait aussi plus de mots arabes dans la langue française que de mots gaulois.

Il est juste regrettable que la « langue gauloise » n’ai jamais réellement existé. Celle-ci fut divisée en plusieurs milliers de dialectes celtes. Le socle culturel linguistique de la France, contrairement au socle ethnique, est le latin. En effet, le latin représente 44 % des origines des mots dans la langue française. On compte également 10 % de grec ancien. Presque tout le vocabulaire utilisé en sciences provient du grec, ce qui n’est guère étonnant dans la mesure où les élites romaines elles-même utilisait le grec ancien comme langue du savoir, de la même façon que les français utilisèrent le latin plus tard par ailleurs. Un nombre conséquent de mots germains existent également dans la langue française, de par la proximité avec l’Allemagne et l’Angleterre, mais aussi comme vestige de l’histoire franque et normande.

De plus, il est à noter qu’une langue ne saurait se résumer aux mots qu’elle contient. Elle est grandement défini par sa syntaxe, son alphabet, par sa façon de présenter les informations, par les images qu’elle utilise, par la mythologie qui la nourrit. Or, l’arabe est très loin d’avoir légué un quelconque héritage au français sur ce terrain plus fondamental. Dans la représentation de l’arbre des langues, en effet, l’arabe n’appartient même pas à la branche des proto-langages indo-européens, branche dans laquelle se trouve le français, si vaste qu’elle vient à intégrer le sanskrit et le persan. Deux langues anciennes qui vont justement être le centre de notre attention.

Arborescence des langues proto-indo-européennes, Rutgers University

Une grande partie de ces mots arabes désignent des mots du commerce avec les pays du sud, dont la généalogie retrace l’itinéraire des routes commerciales

Un autre point à noter est que ces mots arabes proviennent souvent d’un champ lexical de produits du commerce des pays du sud et de l’asie, des produits qui n’existaient pas alors sur le sol français. En effet, un certain nombre de ces denrées nous provenaient par le commerce avec les pays arabisés ou sous colonisation arabe. L’Espagne a notamment été un pont linguistique pour les mots décrivant ces denrées. On peut citer par exemple les mots: coton, satin, jasmin, soude (plante), safran benzène (l’essence), goudron.

De ce fait, beaucoup de ces mots ne sont que des mots qui ont transité par la langue arabe. Leur origine remonte souvent vers d’autres contrées et la langue arabe n’a fait que les emprunter, elle-même, à d’autres langues. On retrouve ainsi dans ces mots “arabes” beaucoup d’origines antérieures sanskrites (zéro, chiffre) ou persanes (divan, caravane, bazar, chicha, châle, douane, échec, épinard, momie, tambour, tabouret, azur, lascard, écarlate, calibre). Le sanskrit étant une langue d’érudit ancienne née en Inde. Les origines perses et sanskrites se retrouvent souvent mêlées ensemble, retraçant les anciennes routes commerciales avec des mots tels que: aubergine, nénuphar, sucre, orange. S’arrêter spécifiquement à l’arabe relève de la malhonnêteté.

Aussi, beaucoup de mots sont ainsi importés dans la langue française pour décrire des pratiques religieuses ou culturelles étrangères. C’est notamment très marqué avec les mots d’origine encore sanskrit (avatar, gourou, nirvana, chakra, mantra, svastika, viagra). Quoi de plus naturel que de reprendre certains mots étrangers pour décrire des choses étrangères (chine, mandarin, manouche venant du sanskrit également)? C’est ainsi le cas pour les mots « girafe », « fennec » ou « gerboise » dont l’origine pourrait venir de l’arabe. Des mots décrivant une faune étrangère à notre territoire.

La liste des mots associés à chaque langue est consultable et très bien fournie sur Wikipédia aux adresses suivantes : pour le sanskrit, pour le persan et pour l’arabe.

Carte des anciennes route de la soie, à mettre en parallèle de la généalogie des mots attribués à l’arabe dans la langue française. Les routes commerciales retracent la généalogie de ces mots, passant du sanskrit au perse, puis à l’arabe avant d’atteindre l’Europe. Ces routes furent opérationnelles du IIe siècle avant J.-C. au XVIe siècle après J.-C.

Une partie de ce vocabulaire issue du monde arabe est relative à la guerre et à la violence

Quelques rares exceptions existent à ces dénominations liées à la guerre et la violence du fait des incursions islamiques en Europe. C’est le cas du mot amiral, matraque, arsenal, barde (armure), caïd ou mesquin. C’est le cas du mot cafard, hérité de « kafir », le mécréant. C’est aussi le cas du mot assassin, référant à la secte tueuse perso-syrienne des haschichins. Cette secte tenait son nom du « haschisch », utilisant cette drogue pour mettre dans un état second ses tueurs.

Cartes des conflits entre monde occidental et monde musulman

Confusion volontaire entre reprise d’un mot et reprise d’une idée

Lorsqu’il s’agit de mots arabes, une confusion est très souvent volontairement faite : celle de faire croire que parce qu’un mot est repris d’une langue étrangère, le concept ou l’idée qu’elle décrit est obligatoirement inconnu à la langue qui fait cet emprunt.

Par exemple, le mot bougie est bien présent en arabe mais provient de l’appellation de la ville de Bejaïa, ville de la Kabylie très exportatrice de cire. Le mot « jupe » venant de l’arabe « jobba » a remplacé un mot qui préexistait pour désigner le même vêtement: « cotillon ». Certains mots en arabe peuvent même être simplement issus du grec ancien. C’est le cas pour les mots « guitare », «chimie», « alambic », « élixir » ou « abricot » passé du grec (kithara / khumeía / ambix / xêrion / praikókion) à l’arabe (kittara / kîmiyâ / al-inbīq / al-‘iksīr / āl-barqwq).

Le mot « algèbre » provient du nom d’un ouvrage du perse Al-Khwarizmi (al-jabr), dont les travaux reposent sur les écrits indiens et grecs. Le mot « algorithme » est également associé étymologiquement au nom de ce mathématicien, bien que le mot arithmós (signifiant nombre) préexiste en grec ancien. De fait, le précurseur de l’algèbre et de l’algorithmie est considéré comme étant Diophante d’Alexandrie ayant vécu entre le Ier et le IV siècle av JC, ayant déjà laissé des écrits à cette époque sur la résolution d’équations quadratiques (ax2 = bx + c) et la décomposition d’un nombre en somme de deux carrés. Il en va de même pour le mot chiffre issu du sanskrit, les chiffres étant déjà très bien connus des romains et des grecs.

Ainsi ces mots peuvent être associés à la reprise d’un certain formalisme, et non à la reprise du concept ou de l’idée même. Dans tous ces exemples, ce que les mots décrivaient préexistaient à leur utilisation.

Page 85 de l’édition de 1621 des Arithmétiques de Diophante

Concrètement, que devons nous en terme de lexique à la langue arabe une fois ces précautions prises ?

Il existe pourtant bien des mots qui sont uniquement originaires de l’arabe sans faire partie du champ lexical de la guerre, des biens commerciaux ou de la faune de l’étranger. En voici la liste faite une fois toutes les précautions nécessaires prises: amalgame (union charnelle), alcool, carafe, fard, matelas, magasin, hasard, macramé, récif, talisman, tare, zénith. Sur les 500 mots courants évoqués, il ne reste donc alors plus que 12 mots.

Toutefois, contrairement à ce que peuvent raconter certains militants de gauche, ces mots ne sont pas directement compris dans la langue française. Ils n’ont qu’une origine étymologique lointaine provenant de l’arabe. Cela veut dire qu’en aucune manière, Eric Zemmour ne parlerait arabe en employant ces mots, et un locuteur arabe serait bien incapable de les comprendre lui-même. Qu’importe les mensonges, cette vérité est plaisante pour un certain bord politique habité par un projet politique très hasardeux.

Aussi, cette liste réduite reste à prendre avec précaution. Par exemple, il est possible que le mot « amalgame » (amal al-gamāa) trouve également son origine dans le grec ancien avec l’assemblage des mots “ama” (ensemble) et “gamein” (marier).

L’approche culturelle prédatrice de la langue arabe justifie sa marginalisation

La chose la plus dangereuse en définitif est de lier ces faits linguistiques, vestiges d’anciennes routes commerciales, à une quelconque revendication politique. Le français comporte un certain nombre de mots germains, anglais voir même japonais. Mais jamais il ne viendrait pourtant à l’idée des allemands, des anglais ou des japonais de remettre en cause l’intégrité de la nation française. Aucun de ces pays n’aurait la saugrenue idée de transformer ces échanges culturels en revendications suprémacistes.

Ironiquement, si les échanges culturels avec les pays arabes aboutissent en définitif à la revendication du territoire français, alors tout contact doit être évité et les pays arabes doivent rester isolés du reste du monde. Si une goutte de la langue arabe dans l’océan Atlantique suffit à ce qu’il soit revendiqué comme l’océan arabique, alors il n’y a pas d’autre choix que de marginaliser cette langue et de se prémunir de son comportement carnassier.

Alors que l’arabe pourrait être une langue comme une autre, et échanger culturellement normalement, ses locuteurs font le choix de la prédation. Évoquer ces 500 mots comme argument politique est en vérité un comportement plus que favorable aux thèses de l’extrême droite, préconisant un principe de précaution envers cette langue.

Les échanges culturels devraient pouvoir se faire sans rencontrer la volonté de domination constante de l’un sur l’autre. Si de telles intentions existent chez l’un des partenaires culturels, cette relation devient alors nocive et ne peut qu’être arrêtée et réprouvée.

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